Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-08-16 Origin: Site
Wound healing is a complex process that involves a series of sequential events, including inflammation, re-epithelialization, angiogenesis, and remodeling. Impaired wound healing can result in chronic wounds, which can lead to significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in elderly patients and those with compromised immune systems. Various approaches have been developed to enhance wound healing, including the use of hydrogels as a platform for drug delivery and tissue engineering.
Hydrogels are three-dimensional networks of hydrophilic polymers that can absorb and retain large amounts of water. They have been widely used in biomedical engineering and drug delivery due to their unique properties, including high water content, tunable mechanical characteristics, and biocompatibility. Among the various types of hydrogels, Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC)-based hydrogels have gained significant attention as wound dressings due to their biocompatibility, low toxicity, high water retention capacity, and ability to control drug release. This review discusses recent advances in CMC-based hydrogels for wound healing applications.
Properties and preparation of CMC-based hydrogels
CMC is a water-soluble derivative of cellulose that is widely used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries due to its excellent rheological properties, film-forming ability, and emulsifying activity. As a polymer, CMC contains carboxyl groups that can ionize in water and form hydrogen bonds with adjacent polymer chains. The degree of substitution (DS) of CMC determines its properties, such as water solubility, viscosity, and swelling behavior. Low DS CMC has higher water solubility and lower viscosity than high DS CMC, which tends to form a gel-like structure in water.
The preparation of CMC-based hydrogels can be achieved by various methods, such as physical crosslinking, chemical crosslinking, and self-assembly. In physical crosslinking, the hydrogel is formed by the reversible physical interactions between polymer chains, such as van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding, or electrostatic interactions. Chemical crosslinking involves the formation of covalent bonds between polymer chains, such as through the use of a crosslinking agent. Self-assembly involves the spontaneous organization of polymer chains into a three-dimensional structure through non-covalent interactions.
Applications of CMC-based hydrogels for wound healing
CMC-based hydrogels have shown significant potential for wound healing applications due to their ability to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) and support cell growth and tissue regeneration. CMC-based hydrogels can be used as wound dressings to provide a moist environment that promotes wound healing, prevent infection, and control exudate. They can also be used as substrates for cell culture and tissue engineering due to their biocompatibility and ability to mimic the mechanical and biochemical properties of native ECM.
The addition of bioactive agents, such as growth factors, cytokines, or antibiotics, to CMC-based hydrogels can enhance wound healing by promoting angiogenesis, cell migration, and tissue formation. The release of bioactive agents from the hydrogel can be controlled by modifying the hydrogel properties, such as the degree of crosslinking, the mesh size, and the surface charge. For example, electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged CMC and positively charged growth factors can be used to control the release of growth factors from the hydrogel.
CMC-based hydrogels have emerged as a promising platform for wound healing applications due to their biocompatibility, low toxicity, high water retention capacity, and ability to control drug release. CMC-based hydrogels can provide a moist environment that promotes wound healing, prevent infection, and control exudate. They can also be used as substrates for cell culture and tissue engineering due to their ability to mimic the mechanical and biochemical properties of native ECM. The addition of bioactive agents can enhance wound healing by promoting angiogenesis, cell migration, and tissue formation. Further research is needed to optimize the properties and performance of CMC-based hydrogels for wound healing applications.